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University of The Basque Country, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Communications

Name of Member: University of The Basque Country, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Communications
Acronym: UPV/EHU
E-mail: ernesto.garciavadillo(at) , marina.aguado(at)
Telephone: 0034 94 601 4223, 0034 94 601 3967
Address: Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013-Bilbao (Spain)

The University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), with more than 5,000 researchers, of which more than 2,800 are PhD researchers, has been certified ‚Campus of International Excellence‘ by the Spanish Ministry of Education. Alongside their fields of specialisation, projects carried out by UPV/EHU research groups result in 171 patents requested in the last 5 years, have so far obtained an 11 million-euro income for transfer-originated activities and produced 1,586 articles in indexed journals in the last 12 months. With regards to the seventh Framework Programme, up to December 2013, the UPV/EHU participates in one hundred sixteen FP7 projects from different research fields.

The railway research activity in the UPV/EHU takes place mainly in two areas: the Mechanical Engineering Department and the I2T Research Lab.

The research activity of the University of The Basque Country in the Mechanical Engineering field goes back to the early 80s, when some collaborative work started with Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF, S.A.) as well as with the Basque railways. Nowadays the Mechanical Engineering Department has enlarged to a number of more than one hundred researchers, an important part of which work in fields directly or indirectly connected to railway applications. As a result several PhDs dissertations have been completed in recent years in railway dynamics, track dynamics, wheel-rail interaction, noise, structural optimization, etc. Most of the research projects carried out have been at the request of industrial companies, as well as for the Spanish Ministry of Research, the Spanish Ministry of Transportation and Public Works and the Basque Rail Infrastructure Manager.

In the telecommunication arena, I2T is a Telecom Research lab with in depth knowledge of:

  • Next generation enabling communication technologies: LTE, WiMAX, WLAN ..
  • Control & Command Signalling
  • ERMTS Modelling
  • Safety & Reliability
  • Key Management and Security Protocols
  • Distributed and security aware applications AAA for low performance equipment (sensors, 6Lowpan)
  • Wireless Seamless Connectivity and resilience architectures
  • IP Network mobility (NEMO, HIP) for multi technology systems
  • Software defined Networks, OpenFlow
  • Experimental platforms: IPv6, virtualization OpenFlow enabled facilities

Our research group has demonstrated skill in the design of resilient communication architectures in the railway domain, supporting highly demanding services such as the train control ERTMS service. We make use of our validated implementation of ERTMS traffic generation tool to test specific and different railway operational scenarios and to stress next generation communications architectures identifying their turning point. We are also focused on communication network and systems design, modelling simulation and prototype implementation. Able to deep understand and to contribute in the technical and research challenge that represents the definition of the new roadmap to enable ETCS communications over packet switched technologies in a high mobility scenario. Our research group has also a recognized expertise and background in Security Mechanisms and in Software Defined Networking (OpenFlow) and we envisage that the integration with software defined radio in the transportation scenario.

Apart from the activities on intensive railway educational programs, the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Bilbao organizes its research activities in the following fields.

  • Track dynamics: The UPV/EHU has gained expertise over the last 15 years in developing rail corrugations models, to study rail corrugation causes and solutions. The UPV/EHU has the appropriate corrugations measurement equipment.
  • Ballastless track: The UPV/EHU has experience in the applications of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete, as well as in the calculation of the range of loads to the track caused by trains, and in the optimization of track parameters.
  • Vehicle dynamics: new developments have been achieved in wheel/rail contact, wheel wear, rolling safety against derailment, wheel profile optimization, etc.
  • Prof. Ernesto García Vadillo
  • Prof. Javier Canales
  • Dr. Javier Santamaría
  • Dr. Aimar Orbe
  • Dr. Marina Aguado
  • Dr Eduardo Jacob
  • Dr Jasone Astorga
  • Dr Nerea Toledo
  • Dr Marivi Higuero
Selected Refereed Publications in Journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports
  • N. Correa, E.G.Vadillo, J. Santamaria, J. Gómez, “On the study of train-track dynamic interactions caused by rail welds on discrete supported rails”, WEAR. International Journal on the Science and Technology of Friction, Lubrication and Wear, DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2013.11.044), 2014
  • J. Santamaria, J. Herreros, E.G.Vadillo, N. Correa, “Design of an optimised wheel profile for rail vehicles operating on two track gauges”, Vehicle System Dynamics. Int. Journal of Veh. Mech. and Mobility, (DOI: 10.1080/00423114.2010.536557), Vol.: 51, nº 1, Pages: 54-73, January 2013.
  • Correa, E. G. Vadillo, J. Santamaria, J. Gomez, “A rational fraction polynomials model to study vertical dynamic wheel-rail interaction”, Journal of Sound and Vibration. (DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2011.12.012), Vol.: 331, nº 8, Pages: 1844-1858, 2012
  • Correa, O. Oyarzabal, E. G. Vadillo, J. Santamaria, J. Gomez, “Rail corrugation development in high speed lines”, WEAR. Int Journ on the Sci and Tech of Friction, Lubric and Wear, Vol.: 271, Pages: 2438-2447, 2011.
  • O. Oyarzabal, N. Correa, E. G. Vadillo, J. Santamaría, J. Gómez, “Modelling rail corrugation with specific-track parameters focusing on ballasted track and slab track”, Vehicle System Dynamics (DOI: 10.1080/00423114.2010.536557), Vol.: 49, nº 11, Pages: 1733-1748, Nov. 2011.
  • J. Blanco-Lorenzo, J. Santamaria, E.G. Vadillo and O. Oyarzabal, “Dynamic comparison of different types of slab tracks and ballasted track using a flexible track model”, Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit. (DOI: 10.1177/0954409711401516), Vol 225, nº 6, Pages: 575-593, Nov 2011.
  • Santamaría, E. G. Vadillo, O. Oyarzabal, “Wheel-rail wear index prediction considering multiple contact patches”, WEAR. Int Journ on the Sci and Tech of Friction, Lubric and Wear, Vol.: 267, Pages: 1100-1104, 2009
  • Santamaría, E. G. Vadillo, I. Gómez, “Influence of creep forces on the risk of derailment of railway vehicles”, Vehicle System Dynamics. Int. Journal of Veh. Mech. and Mobility, Vol.: 47 nº 6, Pages 721-752, 2009
  • Oyarzabal, I. Gómez, J.Santamaría, E. G. Vadillo, “Dynamic optimization of track components to minimize rail corrugation”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.: 319, Pages: 904-917, 2009
  • Santamaría, J., Vadillo E. G., Gómez I., “A comprehensive method for the elastic calculation of the two-point wheel-rail contact”, Vehicle System Dynamics. Int. Journal of Veh. Mech. and Mobility, Vol.: 44, Pages 240-250, 2006
  • Gómez I., Vadillo E. G., Santamaría, J., “A comprehensive track model for the improvement of corrugation models”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 293, Pages 522-534, June 2006
  • Santamaria, J., Vadillo, E.G., “Equivalent conicity and curve radius influence on dynamical performance of unconventional bogies. Comparison analysis”, Vehicle System Dynamics 41 (SUPPL), 133-142, 2004
  • Gómez, I., Vadillo, E.G., “A linear model to explain short pitch corrugation on rails”, Wear. Int Journal on the Science and Technology of Friction, Lubrication and Wear 255 (7-12) , 1127-1142, 2003
  • Gómez, I., Vadillo, E.G., “An analytical approach to study a special case of booted sleeper track rail corrugation”, Wear. Int Journal on the Science and Technology of Friction, Lubrication and Wear 250-251, 916-924, 2001
  • Orbe, E. Rojí, R. Losada, J. Cuadrado, “Calibration patterns for predicting residual strengths of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), Composites Part B, (DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.10.086), Vol.: 58, Pages: 408-417, 2014
  • Aimar Orbe, Jesús Cuadrado, Ramón Losada, Eduardo Rojí, “Framework for the design and analysis of steel fibre reinforced self-compacting steel structures”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.: 35, Pages: 676-686, 2012
  • J. Blanco-Lorenzo, J. Santamaria, E.G. Vadillo and O. Oyarzabal, “Dynamic comparison of different types of slab tracks and ballasted track using a flexible track model”, Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit. (DOI: 10.1177/0954409711401516), Vol 225, nº 6, Pages: 575-593, Nov 2011.
  • Aimar Orbe, Jesus Cuadrado, Ramón Losada, Eduardo Rojí, “Simulations of Computer Fluid Dynamics for the prediction of fibre orientation in Steel Fibre Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete”, Advances In Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Sep 2013, Pages: 142-152, 2013
  • Orbe, A.; Losada, R.; Rojí, E.; Cuadrado, J.; Maturana, A. „The prediction of bending strengths in SFRSCC using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)“ Construction and Building Materials, 2014 (DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.003)
  • Lopez, I; Aguado, M.;Jacob, E., “End-to-end multipath technology to enhance availability and reliability in Next Generation packet-switched Train Signaling Systems”, March 2014, IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine (IF=1,105)
  • Astorga Jasone, Aguado Marina, Toledo Nerea, Higuero Marivi “A High Performance Link Layer Mobility Management Strategy for Professional Private Broadband Networks” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Jan 2013 (IF=1.467).
  • Marc Heddebaut, Souheir Mili, David Sodoyer, Eduardo Jacob, Marina Aguado, Christian Pinedo, Igor Lopez and Virginie Deniau “Towards a resilient railway communication network against electromagnetic attacks” Transport Research Arena 2014
  • Nerea Toledo, 1, , Marivi Higuero1, Maider Huarte1, Jon Matias1, Eduardo Jacob1, Juan Jose Unzilla “A proposal to contribute to ITS standardization activity: a valuable network mobility management approach” 2013. Computer Standards & Interfaces (IF=0,978 )
  • Nerea Toledo, Marivi Higuero, Marina Aguado, Jasone Astorga “Design and Formal Security Evaluation of NeMHIP: A New Secure and Eficient Network Mobility Management Protocol based on the Host Identity Protocol “ Computers & Security, Feb 2013, Elsevier (IF=1.158) DOI: 10.1016/j.cose.2012.09.014
  • Toledo, N.; Higuero, M.; Jacob, E.; Matias, J. “Analytical Evaluation of a HIP Registration Enhancement for NEMO Scenarios”. IEEE Communications Letters. 2011
  • Toledo Nerea, Higuero Marivi, Astorga Jasone, Aguado Marina, Lagrange Xavier “Analytical efficiency evaluation of a network mobility management protocol for Intelligent Transportation Systems” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking.2012, (IF=0.540) DOI: 10.1186/1687-1499-2012-339
  • Patrick Sondi, Mohamed Kassab, Marina Aguado, Etienne Lemaire and Marion Berbineau “Towards a common platform for simulation-based evaluation of both functional and telecommunication sub-systems of the ERTMS” 2012 Joint Rail Conference JRC 2012.
  • M Aguado, IL Samper, M Berbineau, E Jacob „Communication Technologies for Train to Ground Communication Services: LTE versus WiMAX, a simulation study“, World Congress in Railway Research 2011.
  • Marina Aguado, Eduardo Jacob, Puri Saiz , Marivi Higuero, I. Estefania, Oscar Onandi, Marion Berbineau „Performance simulation study of a WiMAX based telecom architecture for train control systems“ WCRR 2008 Seul Korea Mayo 2008
  • Aguado, M.; Astorga, J., Toledo, N., Matías, J. “Wireless Network Simulation Techniques“ in Wireless Network Design: Optimization Models and Solutions Procedures“ Springer.
  • Aguado, M.;Jacob, E., Berbineau, M., Astorga, J. Toledo, N “The cross layer RMPA handover: a reliable mobility pattern aware handover strategy for broadband wireless communication in a high-speed railway domain “ EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking. Sept 2012 Springer Open Journal (IF=0.540 en 2012).
  • Aguado, M.;Onandi, O.; Sáiz P.; Higuero, M. Jacob E. “WiMAX on rails: A broadband communication architecture for CBTC Systems”, IEEE Vehicular Magazine, September 2008 (IF= 105)
  • Aguado, M.; Jacob E.; Berbineau M.;Lledo I.;“QoS and Security challenges in the high mobility scenario: the handover process”, Wiley Book Chapter: 2009
  • Aguado, M.; Jacob, E.; Sáiz, P.; Unzilla, J.J.; Higuero, M.V.; Matías, J. „‚Railway Signaling Systems and New Trends in Wireless Data Communication“ IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology (SJR) 0,041, 2005
  • Igor Lopez, Christian Pinedo, Marina Aguado and Eduardo Jacob Multipath technology to handle mobility and increase resilience in next generation ERTMS, Nets4cars/Nets4Trains Mayo 2013
  • Marina Aguado, Signalling Innovation and the Potential for deploying ETCS over LTE, Railway Telecommunications 2012
  • M Aguado, J Astorga, J Matias, M Huarte “The MIH (Media Independent Handover) contribution to Mobility Management in a heterogeneous railway communication context: a 802.11 /802.16 case study”. Nets4Trains (2011)
  • M Aguado, E Jacob, J Matias, C Conde, M Berbineau, “Deploying CCTV as an Ethernet service over the WiMAX Mobile Network in the Public Transport Scenario“ ICC2009, Dresden, June 2009, Workshop on Safety Communication.
  • M Aguado, J Matias, E Jacob, M Berbineau, The WiMAX ASN Network in the V2I scenario” 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Vehicular Communications. September 2008 Calgary.
  • Jasone Astorga, , Eduardo Jacob , Nerea Toledo , Juanjo Unzilla “Enhancing Secure Access to Sensor Data with User Privacy Support”2014. Computer Networks (IF=1,231)
  • J Astorga, E Jacob, N Toledo, M Aguado “Analytical Evaluation of a Time and Energy Efficient Security Protocol for IP-enabled Sensors”. 2013. Computers & Electrical Engineering Journal (IF=0.928)
  • Astorga, J. Jacob, E. ; Huarte, M. ; Higuero, M. “Ladon: End-to-end Authorization Support for Resource-Deprived Environments”, 2012 IET
Selected Projects:
  • “Mid and long term behavior of slab and ballasted track”; CEDEX – Spanish Ministry of Transportation and Public Works (Ref: PT2006-024-19CCPM); (2006-2009)
  • “Sustainability quantification in construction engineering with and without uncertainties. Application and contrast to different components and constructive scales (including Fibre Reinforced Concrete). Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) (Ref: BIA2010-20789-C04-04); (2011-2013)
  • “Increasing track cycle life”; Basque Railways, Euskal Trebide Sarea – Red Ferroviaria Vasca (Ref: PT10013); (2010-2013)
  • “MercaTREN: Increasing wheelset tonnage and speed of freight trains. Mechanical solutions to the new wheel-rail contact conditions”; Ministry of Research MICINN (Ref: TRA2010-8386); (2010-2015)
  • SECRET: Security of Railways against Electromagnetic Attacks (FP7-SEC-2011-1- 285136 STREP) (2012 – 2015)
  • SAREMSIG : Contribution to a Safe Railway Operation: Evaluating the effect of ElectroMagnetic Disturbances on Railway Control Signalling Systems. Spanish Ministry of Economy & Competitiveness. 2014 -2016. TEC2013-47012- C2-1-R
  • ECOTRANS – (2008 – 2010) Spanish National Public Call CENIT on Ecologic Technologies for Urban Transport – Specifying a Broadband Communication Architecture for supporting Advanced traffic management & control systems in secondary railway lines. (Leader CAF)
  • TIMI – Spanish Public National Public Call CENIT on Intelligent Intermodal Transportation (2007-2011)
  • AMIGUNE : Ambient Intelligence Basque Government Public Research Call. Broadband communication technologies in the transport area.(2006-2009)
  • SENSITIS: Security and mobility in sensor Networks in the ITS domain. Basque Government Public Research Call (2011,2012)